Q: does damage occur if timing belt is not replaced at 110,000 miles? on 2003 Honda Civic

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Can a worn/damaged timing belt cause the engine to seize?
(2) Answers
When the belt breaks or skips, it allows the pistons to physically hit the intake and exhaust valves, and this will stop your engine instantly. Do not let this happen, it will be very expensive.
Looks like only the 1.7 litre has a timing belt the other two options ( 1.3 and 2.0 ) have timing chains, But if your timing belt broke the valves could have struck the pistons and caused damage to the engine.