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Did someone check the air filter recently? If so make sure that it is latched closed correctly.
The camshaft being out of time (chain worn/jumped) will result in a cranks but won't start, no spark. Unplugging the sensor lets the computer ignore that input and it starts the engine off of the crank sensor alone. A DRBIII scan tool would likely report that the cam/crank signals are out of sync while cranking.
Where did you get the catalyst, and was it CARB OBDII approved?
It's not the convertor. Does the master cylinder have brake fluid in it? Sometimes a brake line fails and it sprays the fluid and doesn't show much of a wet area. If the fluid level is low, add some and have an assistant pump the pedal while you watch underneath. You'll probably find a leak. There is always a chance the master cylinder itself has failed, but they usually cause the pedal to drift down (fade) at stops before it just quits working.
The warning likely means that the tool is not to be used while driving, similar to you shouldn't be texting and driving. It's not going to hurt your car, but the user could hurt him/herself if they try and drive and use the tool at the same time. Right now some tech is going to have a hard time getting to sleep because of that tool missing. Pleae make sure they get it back ASAP.
The fuel pressure specification is 50PSI. There are a number of systems that do bleed off once the pump stops running, so that alone isn't enough to go on. How are you checking for spark? Will the engine fire on alternate fuel? What if any codes are setting?
Is this setting any codes other than the P1391? To test for a broken flywheel we use a scope and compare the synchronization of the cam and crank sensor waveforms. Plus we pull a plug, install a pressure transducer and take a waveform which allows us to confirm cam timing. P1391 is for an intermittent loss of the cam or crank sensor signal. (you didn't specify what engine) but diagnostics would be done with a scan tool like the DRBIII which will show the tech in the data stream whether the cam or crank sensor is active or not, which one was lost last, and typically if the signals are in sync or not. That data has to be backed up with live measurements with a scope of the sensor signals at the PCM and of the power and ground feeds to the sensors at the sensors. (It's best to concentrate on the one confirmed to drop out in scan data).
Do not clear codes and leave the system in limbo. If codes are setting, then the vehicle is either polluting the air, or cannot properly test itself to be sure that it is not and that means that it needs diagnosed and repaired. Many drivers who make a habit of ignoring service needs end up allowing multiple failures to occur before they finally are forced to do something about them and they end up with a large repair bill all at once instead of dealing with a more manageable cost that they could budget for. If you really want to help people, give them good advice.
Sorry but a partial solution is not a solution. When dealing with OBDII you can figure out little limits engineered into the system such as a given monitor not running under certain conditions but when you really study it you'll find that the large and medium leak tests run each time the PCM see's the fuel level increase (aka a refueling event).
To get the lock cylinder out you have to visualize what I am going to describe. There is a bar that runs the length of the key cylinder that pulls inward when you install the key. If you have the replacement cylinder you will see that it is at 9 o'clock in relation to the way the key is inserted (the key being 6 and 12 o'clock) Tear the front cover off of the original lock cylinder and then cut away at the front lip of the old cylinder to expose that bar. Once you can see it, insert your key, and then take a 3/32 cotter pin and spread it apart and use it to help push that bar inwards as you work to turn your key. That should release the cylinder allowing it to turn and then you can remove the old one and install your new one.