Why does my car keep rising temperature? on 2004 Volkswagen Golf

My car drives normally within a 8 - 10Km distance non-stop but when I go beyond that then the temperature light pops, which requires me to stop to allow the engine to cool down. I do not understand what is wrong with my car and appreciate any assistance!

Asked by for the 2004 Volkswagen Golf
First check the coolant level and ensure it is correct (top up if required, secondly allow the engine to idle until it gets up to operating temperature and see if the cooling fan on the radiator comes on. If the temperature gauge goes up and up in to the "hot " box of the temperature gauge and you don't hear/see the fan come on the fan fuse , motor of thermoswitch has a problem.
It is possible that the thermostat has failed closed not allowing coolant to circulate to the radiator to be cooled or the water pump is not working properly. I am not sure if your VW falls into the year range but for a few years VW had water pump impeller failure.