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Justin Case Auto
Test for battery voltage to the sensors heater circuit. If OK then ohm heater circuit. Should be 3-30 ohms. If it's not replace sensor. To replace the sensor use an oxygen sensor socket and with a warm engine - not hot, not cold - remove sensor. Keep in mind... I'm in Florida so I don't have rust issues like you might. You might be better off taking it to a shop incase it needs to be heated up to get out. You don't want to round off the sensor or strip the treads in the exhaust. That will get expensive to repair.
Too many possibilities. Low on refrigerant (then whats leaking?), pressure switches (which one?), control head, false sensor reading to computer telling it to turn off. I can go on and on. Take it to a shop and have it diagnosed. It will save you money in the long run to repair the cause than to guess and just put parts in it.
Reset computer... No you won't have to. In my opinion we always go with the factory style and brand of spark plugs. I know on the Odyssey they are not inexpensive but the system was engineered to work with those plugs.
30-Minute Learn Procedure Important: Do not remove the key from the ignition during this procedure. If the key is removed, the procedure will have to be performed from the beginning. Turn ON the ignition, with the engine OFF. Attempt to start the engine, then release the key to ON. The vehicle will not start. Observe the SECURITY telltale. After approximately 10 minutes, the telltale will turn OFF. Turn OFF the ignition, and wait 5 seconds. Repeat steps 1-4 two more times for a total of 3 cycles/30 minutes. The vehicle is now ready to relearn the Passlock Sensor Data Code and/or passwords on the next ignition switch transition from OFF to RUN. Important: The vehicle learns the Passlock Sensor Data Code and/or password on the next ignition switch transition from OFF to RUN. You must turn the ignition OFF before attempting to start the vehicle. Start the engine. The vehicle has now learned the Passlock Sensor Data Code and/or password. With a scan tool, clear any DTCs if needed. History DTCs will self clear after 100 ignition cycles.
This is a common problem this time of year. You will need to get under the vehicle and look for a short plastic tube coming from the black case at the firewall on the passenger side. Carefully insert a piece of wire up it about 2-5 inches. Most likely you will get a rush of water so you might get wet. If you have a shop you regularly get service done at I'm sure they will clear it inexpensively if not for free.
If you get major sparks, like welding, the positive wire to the starter may be touching metal somewhere. Look close... most likely it will be at the starter. Maybe the terminal end turned slightly when tightening it. If the sparks are minor it might be something was left on... headlight, ignition, or something like that. Be careful.
With out knowing which 4.0 it is... 1st turn the ignition switch to on position and make sure the charge light is on. 2nd make sure you have battery voltage to the large terminal at the back of the alt.